At the time of writing our partner OAX Foundation is about to release our trustless layer 2 exchange on the Rinkeby network. This version is fully trustless with the exception of the order cancellation mechanism. In this blog post we will elaborate on the challenges of order cancellation in both trustful and trustless settings.

On-Chain Settlement

If settlement is done on the blockchain (as for example with the 0x protocol) order cancellation can be implemented by letting clients publish a cancellation note on the blockchain. The settlement contract can then check if an order has been cancelled before settling. This may still be subject to front-running issues. But because the blockchain is the only source of truth, this solution works and is rather straight forward.


At the heart of the issue with trustless order cancellation lies the fact that it is not possible to distinguish between a failed delivery of a message (due to connection problems, for example) and a recipient refusing to acknowledge the receipt of the message. Without a trusted third party, it is neither possible to prove that the sender had sent the message nor that the receiver had received it.

For order cancellation this means that if we are not to rely on the blockchain as a “trusted third party” to publish the cancellation message, a client will not be able to cancel orders unless the exchange agrees to the cancellation. Conversely, for completely trustless cancellation we would have to rely on a third party. Relying on the blockchain to publish cancellation messages would be costly, slow and not scalable. This would severely impact the exchange functionality because order cancellations occur frequently during trading activities.

Our current order cancellation mechanism however has another weak point: after the exchange acknowledges a cancellation, it could still fill the cancelled order until the order expires. This would allow a malicious exchange operator to fill cancelled orders if the conditions are beneficial, for instance, if there was a significant price movement since the cancellation. This particular issue can be fixed without having to fall back to the blockchain for every order cancellation.

Non-reversible Off-Chain Cancellation

One way to fix the aforementioned problem is to have the exchange provide a signed cancellation note that includes information about how much of the cancelled order has already been filled. The client can then verify this information and consider the order cancelled if it is correct.

Our layer 2 exchange protocol is described in detail in our paper. In a nutshell, the trustlessness of our protocol relies on a dispute mechanism. In case of disagreement between the client and the server, the client can open a dispute in the smart contract. The exchange operator then has to close the dispute within a certain time frame by providing evidence (including balance proof, orders and fills) to support that the client’s balance is correct. An honest exchange operator can always close disputes, but a dishonest operator cannot. Failure to close disputes will lead to the system being halted. At that point clients can reclaim their funds via the smart contract.

As part of the dispute process the clients and operator provide evidence of order approvals from the clients and trade execution by the exchange. For trustless order cancellation we would include the cancellation messages in the evidence that the client submits. The smart contract would consider this information when it determines if the trades executed by the exchange were 1. approved by the user and, 2. not previously cancelled by the exchange. As a result a client that is in possession of a cancellation message can consider their order cancelled. If the exchange were to fill it, the client could seek recourse with the smart contract.

Non-Cooperative On-Chain Fallback

In order to implement fully trustless order cancellation it is tempting to combine the two solutions mentioned before. The client could then

  1. Try to use the off-chain cancellation mechanism
  2. If for whatever reason the previous cancellation did not succeed, fall back to the on-chain cancellation mechanism.

In order to implement the on-chain cancellation mechanism we would however have to make significant changes to the protocol. By design, the smart contract is not aware of the ongoing trading activity. This is precisely what allows us to perform the trading activity off-chain without the throughput limitations of the blockchain. However it also means that when a client registers a cancellation on-chain their order may have already been filled off-chain. Conversely a malicious exchange operator could claim the fills happened before the cancellation occurred even if they did not. We could use a similar mechanism that we use for disputes where after an on chain cancellation the operator has a certain amount of time to “cancel the cancellation” by filling the order (at least partially).

The two cancellation mechanisms are illustrated below.

After processing these fills the smart contract could - as part of the dispute process - enforce that no other fills were created for the order. With this on-chain cancellation mechanism a malicious exchange still has some time to fill the cancelled order. If this time window ends before the point in time when the order expires, the on-chain cancellation mechanism reduces the risk of the client. In practice however this looks like a rather complex addition to the protocol so it remains to be seen if the reduction in risk outweighs the cost of increasing the complexity of the protocol.

I would like to thank my colleagues David, Philippe, Lio and Antoine as helpful discussions and suggestions for this blog post.


Mathis Antony