• Order Cancellation in Layer 2 Exchanges

    At the time of writing our partner OAX Foundation is about to release our trustless layer 2 exchange on the Rinkeby network. This version is fully trustless with the exception of the order cancellation mechanism. In this blog post we will elaborate on the challenges of order cancellation in both trustful and trustless settings.

  • Merkle trees: it is not that simple!

    In a previous post (Trustless, Noncustodial Exchange Prototype), we already mentioned Merkle trees and their use in the exchange protocol we’re building with the OAX Foundation. Today we will go deeper into the subject, highlightling how easy it is to introduce security flaws when instantiating this seemingly simple cryptographic primitive.

  • Understanding Delayed Finality in Off-Chain Transactions

    In an era of instant payments, blockchain transactions seem like a steep step back in usability in many ways. Unlike traditional payment methods, blockchain transactions are not immediately finalized. This delay in payment completion, known as delayed finality, is an important concept weaved into the very foundation of the blockchain that deserves closer examination.

  • Trustless, Noncustodial Exchange Prototype

    About a month ago the OAX Foundation and Enuma Technologies released a prototype SDK of our trustless exchange prototype. In this post we would like to provide a accessible overview of the technology behind it.

  • Safe Use of bignumber.js

    JavaScript numbers are often inadequate to precisely represent numerical values for many applications. bignumber.js is a popular JavaScript package used in many financial and blockchain related projects to overcome this problem.

    We present some of the perils of working with bignumber.js and how to mitigate them.

  • Decentralized Application Messaging with Whisper — Part 1

    This is Part 1 in a series of articles on Whisper, Ehtereum’s inter-application communication protocol. In this article, we cover the principles and use cases of Whisper. We will dive into practical examples in Part 2, and share some tricks we have learned from using Whisper in a decentralized exchange project we have been working on.

  • PDF processing with Nix

    Have you ever wished if you could just convert a logo you got in a PDF file into an SVG, so you can put up on your website and it would look good on Retina screens too?

    Have you ever marvelled the beautifully formatted research papers in PDFs, but you didn’t want to invest into learning TeX or get tangled in installing TeX?

    Nix to the rescue!

  • The Nix package manager in practice

    Have you ever wondered why do you need to install broadly used development tools in different ways on different OSes?

    Python, Ruby, Node.js, Clojure, just to name a few.

    Wouldn’t it be nice if you could learn one method which works on macOS, Ubuntu, Arch, Amazon Linux, Docker containers?

  • Sprites State Channels

    Enuma Technologies would like to thank the Ethereum Foundation for a grant to implement Sprites state channels. In this blog post we would like to provide an accessible introduction to Sprites and our motivations for pursuing its implementation.

  • Rolling your own Proof-of-Authority Ethereum consortium

    How do you set up a private Ethereum chain and what considerations are there when doing so? A private chain can potentially have huge advantages over public ones, transactions are cheaper, latencies are lower and the level of control you have is higher. Why would you pick Proof-of-Authority over the other consensus methods out there?

  • Crypto Hardware 加密硬件


    These are the slides for my talk at the launch of Ethereum Meetup in Shenzhen, July 29th 2017. This talk was a slightly more hardware focused version of my previous talk about “Hardware Digital Signatures” translated to Chinese.

    Conferences and Events/2017 Crypto Hardware 加密硬件.pdf

  • Hardware Digital Signatures

    Hardware Digital Signatures have clear security advantages over their software counterparts, and crypto hardware is getting ubiquitous.

    These are the slides of my talk for January’s installment of Codeaholics (Hong Kong) meetup, about the why and how of hardware based digital signatures.

    2017 Hardware Digital Signatures.pdf

  • A Tale of Two Curves

    Hardware Signing for Ethereum

    All popular blockchains, starting with Bitcoin through Ethereum all the way up to Zcash, use the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) for cryptographically signing transactions.

    Software implementations of ECDSA may be susceptible to side-channel attacks that leak information about the private key. Luckily, the latest generation devices are equipped with specialized hardware that supports key generation and signing, but leveraging these new features for existing blockchains is not straightforward because of the different algorithms involved.

    The work in this article was done on behalf of Trusted Key Solutions and is used in Trusted Key’s IDENTIFY secure digital identity system.

  • Retooling for Market Success

    This post is a condensed version of the talk I gave at IoT Asia 2016 in Singapore, talking about the birth of an IoT device, its subsequent development, all the way up to (SPOILERS but not including) its crowdfunding.

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